As an important economic partner of China in Southeast Asia, Myanmar plays an important role in the Belt and Road Initiative (the BRI). With the proposal of the BRI and the construction of Bangladesh-China-India-Myanmar Economic Corridor, the trade cooperation between China and Myanmar has become increasingly close, and agricultural products trade is a crucial part of the bilateral trade. Based on the Revealed Comparative Advantage Index and Trade Complementarity Index, this study conducted an analysis on the competitiveness and complementarity of agricultural trade between China and Myanmar. The results showed that the competitiveness and complementarity coexist, but the complementarity is more obvious. Finally, based on the current situation and our analysis results of agricultural trade between China and Myanmar, we put forward targeted suggestions to seek new development for agricultural trade cooperation.